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  • Project contributors: MacInnes J, Spijker J,

    This Project is linked to the following Strand/s:

    Living Longer and the Changing Lifecourse

    Overview

    Objectives
    Elderly health and mortality have been steadily improving in Scotland since the 1960s despite the persistence of large regional and local differences, and a life expectancy that remains below other Western European countries. 'Population ageing' will intensify in Scotland as fertility levels are likely to remain below replacement level, while life expectancy will continue to increase. By contrast, the speed of individual ageing or senescence will continue to slow down as older people become more active and health conscious, delaying the onset of chronic disease and reducing mortality. Population ageing will therefore have substantial social consequences both for individual wellbeing and for the sustainability and effectiveness of pension, health and social care systems. However, assessing these consequences needs a better understanding of the relationship between individual and population ageing, since the expansion of the older population will go hand in hand with changes in its composition and characteristics.

    The project has three objectives:

    1. To reassess the concepts of population ageing and the size and composition of the 'old' population by constructing alternative measurements of ageing based on (a) years of remaining healthy life expectancy, and (b) proportion of total life expectancy remaining, and to compare these with conventional measures, such as the old-age dependency ratio.
    2. On the basis of this reassessment to construct a taxonomy of diverse ageing experiences (e.g. through health status, current and past socio-economic status, living arrangements and civil status) and compare these across birth cohorts and by occupational social class.
    3. To review what implications the results have for forecasts of future dependency ratios and the evolution of demand for health and social care.

    Methods
    This project takes a sociodemographic approach to assess the challenges and opportunities of ageing populations in different contexts. Using data from the Scottish Longitudinal Survey, new measures of who comprises the elderly population based on years of remaining life expectancy (as predicted by risk factors such as gender, occupation, economic activity, civil status, subjective rated health and area of residence) rather than years since birth are constructed. Age is treated in terms of years left until death rather than calendar age. The latter are routinely used in the social and political analysis (e.g. in calculation of dependency ratios) because of the straightforward availability of data and their relevance to eligibility criteria set by public policy for e.g. pension entitlement and other social benefits. However, these commonly-used measures do not consider the impact of the underlying driver of population ageing in the first place: improvements in health which reduce morbidity and mortality.

    These alternative definitions of the elderly based on remaining life expectancy are used to construct estimates of the size and composition of the elderly, and their ratio to the actually economically active population in Scotland, using SLS and register data. This is then compared with 'traditional' population pyramids and dependency ratios for the period 1975 - 2025.

    Findings
    The usual approaches to definitions of 'old age', in terms of fixed age categories, such as taking the male retirement age of 65 as a cut-off point, or defining the old age dependency ratio (OADR) by expressing the size of the population aged 65+ as a proportion of the working age (16 or 20 up to the State Pension Age) population at a given point in time, have been challenged in two ways by this study:

    First, the size of the employed workforce is driven by many factors other than age so that its relationship to the population age structure is rather dynamic. For example, the employment rate of women has increased dramatically over the last 50 years as the 'male breadwinner' employment system has weakened, while the skill demands of a high technology economy has increased the age of entry to the labour market. Less than one half of men and women wait until the State Pension Age to leave the labour market, with the result that most adult 'dependents' (in the sense of not being in employment) are now below pension age. However, a growing minority of older people are now working beyond the State Pension Age, and given changes in public policy, attitudes to age discrimination, and employers' human resource management policies, the size of this minority might be expected to increase.

    Second, this research makes the case for using Remaining Life Expectancy (RLE) based measures of the size of the elderly population. Instead of taking a fixed age in years as the boundary used to define old age, this measure takes account of falling older age mortality by counting back from expected age at death. The distribution and average of this time can be calculated using life table data, taken from such sources as the Human Mortality Database, and census data linked to vital event registration. Thus, if we define the elderly as those within a certain amount of time of expected death, the boundary between the elderly and others will gradually move upwards as life expectancy increases. This is important because when mortality is falling substantially (as it is now in the UK and many other countries) this rapid change in 'years left' means that many behaviours and attitudes, including health related behaviours and attitudes, saving behaviour and consumption of health and social care services may correlate as strongly or more strongly with RLE ('years left') than with age ('years lived').

    Publications & Activities

    Population ageing: the time-bomb that isn't?
    Address to the Parliamentary University Group (2014). (Westminster Palace, London)
    Authors: MacInnes J, Spijker J, Riffe T,

    How should population ageing be measured?
    European Population Conference 2014 (2014). (Budapest, Hungary)
    Authors: Spijker J, Riffe T, MacInnes J,

    The myth of old age
    British Society of Gerontology 43rd Annual Conference (2014). (University of Southampton)
    Authors: Schneider A, Spijker J, MacInnes J,

    Incorporating time-to-death (TTD) in health-based population ageing measurements
    New Measures of Age and Ageing (2014). (Vienna)
    Authors: Spijker J, Riffe T, MacInnes J,

    Population Aging: How Should It Be Measured?
    Population Association of America Annual Meeting (2014). (Boston, MA)
    Authors: Spijker J, MacInnes J,

    Time-to-death patterns in markers of age and dependency.
    New Measures of Age and Ageing (2014). (Vienna)
    Authors: Riffe T, Chung P, Spijker J, MacInnes J,

    Decomposing and recomposing the population pyramid by remaining years of life
    European Population Conference 2014 (2014). (Budapest, Hungary)
    Authors: Spijker J, Riffe T, MacInnes J,

    Decomposing and Recomposing the Population Pyramid by Remaining Years of Life.
    Population Association of America Annual Meeting (2014). (Boston, MA)
    Authors: Riffe T, Spijker J, MacInnes J,

    Flexible ageing: new ways to measure and explore the diverse experience of population aging in Scotland, using the Scottish Longitudinal Study
    Data analysis for effective policy for older people (ESRC Age UK Showcase Event) (2014). (Tavis House, London)
    Authors: Spijker J, MacInnes J,

    Flexible ageing: new ways to measure the diverse experience of population ageing in Scotland
    Census Research User Conference (2013). (London)
    Authors: Spijker J, MacInnes J,

    Flexible ageing: new ways to measure the diverse experience of population ageing in Scotland
    The Annual Conference of the British Society of Gerontology (2013). (Oxford)
    Authors: Spijker J, MacInnes J,

    Flexible aging: new ways to measure and explore the diverse experience of population aging in Scotland, using the Scottish Longitudinal Study
    ESRC Secondary Data Analysis Initiative (SDAI) Networking Event (2013). (London)
    Authors: Spijker J, MacInnes J,

    Years lived and years left: why the contemporary population ageing debate is mistaken
    The case of Scotland. European Sociology Association Conference (2013). (Turin, Italy)
    Authors: MacInnes J, Spijker J,

    Years Lived and Years Left: a New Perspective on Population Ageing in Scotland
    Economic and Social Research Council Festival of Social Science 2013: New Perspectives on Population Ageing in Scotland (2013). (Edinburgh)
    Authors: Spijker J, MacInnes J, Riffe T,

    Population ageing in Scotland: time for a rethink?
    British Society for Population Studies Conference (2013). (University of Swansea)
    Authors: Spijker J, MacInnes J,

    Media

    Defusing the Population "Time Bomb" Openpop website. 2014
    Article on www.openpop.org titled "Defusing the Population "Time Bomb"" mentions the work of John MacInnes and Jeroen Spijker.

    The politics of population ageing Policy-network website. 2014
    Article on www.policy-network.net written by John MacInnes and Jeroen Spijker about their work, titled "The politics of population ageing"

    Getting older doesn't make you more conservative The Conversation. 2014
    Article on theconversation.com (UK Edition), an independent news and commentary website, titled "Getting older doesn't make you more conservative" written by John MacInnes and Jeroen Spijker.

    Hard evidence: can we afford an ageing population? Calendonian Mercury. 2014
    Article on caledonianmercury.com titled "Hard evidence: can we afford an ageing population?" is written by John MacInnes and Jeroen Spijker.

    Panic about pensions? Hgv Hungarian website. 2014
    Article on Hungarian website hgv.hu titled "Pánikoljunk a nyugdíjak miatt?" (Panic about pensions?) discusses the research of John MacInnes and Jeroen Spijker

    Despite an aging population; are pension systems still sustainable? Penzugyiszemle Hungarian website. 2014
    Article on Hungarian website www.penzugyiszemele.hu titled "Hiába az elöregedés, mégis fenntarthatóak a nyugdíjrendszerek?" (Despite an aging population, are pension systems still sustainable?) discusses the research of John MacInnes and Jeroen Spijker

    Nurse warning after rise in proportion aged at least 50 The Herald Scotland. 2014
    Article on www.heraldscotland.com titled "Nurse warning after rise in proportion aged at least 50" written by Robbie Dinwoodie discusses research by John MacInnes and Jeroen Spijker

    Part I: Dementia: the "epidemic" of metaphors Holelusia website. 2014
    Article on holeousia.wordpress.com titled "Part I: Dementia: the "epidemic" of metaphors" written by Peter Gordon discusses research by John MacInnes and Jeroen Spijker.

    Public policy's senior moment Project Syndicate website. 2013
    Article on www.projectsyndicate.org, a world opinion page providing readers with commentaries by global leaders and thinkers, titled "Public policy's senior moment" written by John MacInnes and Jeroen Spijker

    Britain's old age 'time bomb' may have been exaggerated; say experts Muslim News website. 2013
    Article on www.muslimnews.co.uk titled "Britain's old age 'time bomb' may have been exaggerated, say experts" written by Rachel Kayani discusses research by John MacInnes and Jeroen Spijker

    Hard Evidence: can we afford an ageing population? The Conversation. 2013
    Article on https://theconversation.com titled "Hard Evidence: can we afford an ageing population?" written by John MacInnes and Jeroen Spijker.

    Preparing for the ageing population GM Journal website. 2013
    Article on www.gmjournal.co.uk titled "Preparing for the ageing population" discusses research by John MacInnes and Jeroen Spijker

    Guest Blog: Amelia Chong - The demographic timebomb: delayed; not defused ILCUK website. 2013
    Guest blog on blog.ilcuk titled "Guest Blog: Amelia Chong - The demographic timebomb: delayed, not defused" written by Amelia Chong dicusses research by John MacInnes and Jeroen Spijker

    Forget the ageing population; we're actually getting younger The Conversation. 2013
    Article on theconversation.com, an independent news and commentary website (UK edition), titled "Forget the ageing population, we're actually getting younger" written by John MacInnes and Jeroen Spijker.

    Attitudes to age and ageing Dublin City FM. 2013
    Jeroen Spijker is interviewed on his research with John MacInnes by Eoghan Hanlon on Dublin City FM on "Attitudes to age and ageing".

    Older people are shaping up CSP website. 2013
    Article on csp.org.uk titled "Older people are shaping up" by Janet Wright discusses research by Jeroen Spijker and John MacInnes

    The Economics Story: …Population Ageing Dorset Eye website. 2013
    Article on www.dorseteye.com titled "The Economics Story: …Population Ageing" by Professor Nigel Jump discusses research by Jeroen Spijker and John MacInnes

    Population ageing: the time bomb that isn't? Dispensing Doctor website. 2013
    Article on www.dispensingdoctor.org titled "Population ageing: the time bomb that isn't?" by Alisa Colquhoun discusses research by Jeroen Spijker and John MacInnes

    Impact of population ageing in UK exaggerated Senior Australian News website. 2013
    Article on www.seniorau.com.au titled "Impact of population ageing in UK exaggerated" is dedicated to John MacInnes and Jeroen Spijker's BMJ article. Their article argues that the idea that dependent older people represent a great demographic challenge of our age is exaggerated as current measurements wrongly assume that all people that have reached state pension age are dependent. In addition, female and older workers' labour force participation can still be increased, which would lessen the financial burden of those who sustain the elderly.

    Globe Watch Australian ageing agenda website. 2013
    Article on www.australianageingagenda.com.au titled "Globe Watch" discusses research by Jeroen Spijker and John MacInnes

    Recent studies argue that we don't need to worry about the rising healthcare costs of our ageing population If.org website. 2013
    Article on www.if.org.uk titled "Recent studies argue that we don't need to worry about the rising healthcare costs of our ageing population" is dedicated to John MacInnes and Jeroen Spijker's BMJ article. Their article argues that the idea that dependent older people represent a great demographic challenge of our age is exaggerated as current measurements wrongly assume that all people that have reached state pension age are dependent. In addition, female and older workers' labour force participation can still be increased, which would lessen the financial burden of those who sustain the elderly.

    Impact of population ageing over-exaggerated Hospital Dr website. 2013
    Article on blog www.hospitaldr.co.uk titled "Impact of population ageing over-exaggerated" quotes the research of Jeroen Spijker and John MacInnes.

    Demographic timebomb – not as timebomby if we work a bit longer Flipchart Fairytales website. 2013
    Article on flipchartfairytales.wordpress.com titled "Demographic timebomb – not as timebomby if we work a bit longer" is dedicated to John MacInnes and Jeroen Spijker's BMJ article. Their article argues that the idea that dependent older people represent a great demographic challenge of our age is exaggerated as current measurements wrongly assume that all people that have reached state pension age are dependent. In addition, female and older workers' labour force participation can still be increased, which would lessen the financial burden of those who sustain the elderly.

    Ageing population Hard Truth is cock and bull? Atans1 website. 2013
    Article on atans1.wordpress.com titled "Ageing population Hard Truth is cock and bull?" is dedicated to John MacInnes and Jeroen Spijker's BMJ article. Their article argues that the idea that dependent older people represent a great demographic challenge of our age is exaggerated as current measurements wrongly assume that all people that have reached state pension age are dependent. In addition, female and older workers' labour force participation can still be increased, which would lessen the financial burden of those who sustain the elderly.

    Envejecimiento; una alarma innecesaria: Ganamos salud; perdemos dependencia Envejecimientoenred website. 2013
    Article on envejecimientoenred.wordpress.com titled "Envejecimiento, una alarma innecesaria: Ganamos salud, perdemos dependencia" is dedicated to John MacInnes and Jeroen Spijker's BMJ article. Their article argues that the idea that dependent older people represent a great demographic challenge of our age is exaggerated as current measurements wrongly assume that all people that have reached state pension age are dependent. In addition, female and older workers' labour force participation can still be increased, which would lessen the financial burden of those who sustain the elderly.

    Has the impact of an ageing population been exaggerated? E Hospice website. 2013
    Article on www.ehospice.com titled "Has the impact of an ageing population been exaggerated? " is dedicated to John MacInnes and Jeroen Spijker's BMJ article. Their article argues that the idea that dependent older people represent a great demographic challenge of our age is exaggerated as current measurements wrongly assume that all people that have reached state pension age are dependent. In addition, female and older workers' labour force participation can still be increased, which would lessen the financial burden of those who sustain the elderly.

    NHS reality. An NHS soapbox. Speakers' corner for the NHS NHS reality website. 2013
    Article on nhsreality.wordpress.com titled "NHS reality. An NHS soapbox. Speakers' corner for the NHS" is dedicated to John MacInnes and Jeroen Spijker's BMJ article. Their article argues that the idea that dependent older people represent a great demographic challenge of our age is exaggerated as current measurements wrongly assume that all people that have reached state pension age are dependent. In addition, female and older workers' labour force participation can still be increased, which would lessen the financial burden of those who sustain the elderly.

    Geringere Kosten durch demographischen Wandel als gedacht Schattenblick website. 2013
    Article on www.schattenblick.de titled "Geringere Kosten durch demographischen Wandel als gedacht" is dedicated to John MacInnes and Jeroen Spijker's BMJ article. Their article argues that the idea that dependent older people represent a great demographic challenge of our age is exaggerated as current measurements wrongly assume that all people that have reached state pension age are dependent. In addition, female and older workers' labour force participation can still be increased, which would lessen the financial burden of those who sustain the elderly.

    Old age dependency overstated Population Matters website. 2013
    Article on populationmatters.org titled "Old age dependency overstated" is dedicated to John MacInnes and Jeroen Spijker's BMJ article. Their article argues that the idea that dependent older people represent a great demographic challenge of our age is exaggerated as current measurements wrongly assume that all people that have reached state pension age are dependent. In addition, female and older workers' labour force participation can still be increased, which would lessen the financial burden of those who sustain the elderly.

    Population aging crisis may have been overestimated Weblog Do Fraga website. 2013
    Article on weblogdofraga.blogspot.com.es titled "Population aging crisis may have been overestimated" is dedicated to John MacInnes and Jeroen Spijker's BMJ article. Their article argues that the idea that dependent older people represent a great demographic challenge of our age is exaggerated as current measurements wrongly assume that all people that have reached state pension age are dependent. In addition, female and older workers' labour force participation can still be increased, which would lessen the financial burden of those who sustain the elderly.

    Population ageing: the timebomb that isn't? Apuntesdemografia website. 2013
    Article on apuntesdedemografia.wordpress.com titled "Population ageing: the timebomb that isn't?" is dedicated to John MacInnes and Jeroen Spijker's BMJ article. Their article argues that the idea that dependent older people represent a great demographic challenge of our age is exaggerated as current measurements wrongly assume that all people that have reached state pension age are dependent. In addition, female and older workers' labour force participation can still be increased, which would lessen the financial burden of those who sustain the elderly.

    The population timebomb BMJ podcast. 2013
    Podcast interview with Jeroen Spijker on the BMJ website: The population timebomb: The idea that an ageing population is making it harder and harder to fund pensions, social care, and healthcare, as the number of older people grows in proportion to the working population. Jeroen Spijker, senior research fellow at the School of Social and Political Science in the University of Edinburgh, explains why he thinks the risk has been overblown

    Pensioners choose work over retirement Up to Speed News website. 2013
    Article on Uptospeednews.co.uk titled "Pensioners choose work over retirement" is dedicated to John MacInnes and Jeroen Spijker's BMJ article. Their article argues that the idea that dependent older people represent a great demographic challenge of our age is exaggerated as current measurements wrongly assume that all people that have reached state pension age are dependent. In addition, female and older workers' labour force participation can still be increased, which would lessen the financial burden of those who sustain the elderly.

    Decline in Number of Old Age Dependents in UK Top news Arab Emirates website. 2013
    Article on topnews.ae (TopNews Arab Emirates) titled "Decline in Number of Old Age Dependents in UK" is dedicated to John MacInnes and Jeroen Spijker's BMJ article. Their article argues that the idea that dependent older people represent a great demographic challenge of our age is exaggerated as current measurements wrongly assume that all people that have reached state pension age are dependent. In addition, female and older workers' labour force participation can still be increased, which would lessen the financial burden of those who sustain the elderly.

    Impact van vergrijzing wordt overdreven Ziekte1 website. 2013
    Article on www.ziekte1.com titled "Impact van vergrijzing wordt overdreven" is dedicated to John MacInnes and Jeroen Spijker's BMJ article. Their article argues that the idea that dependent older people represent a great demographic challenge of our age is exaggerated as current measurements wrongly assume that all people that have reached state pension age are dependent. In addition, female and older workers' labour force participation can still be increased, which would lessen the financial burden of those who sustain the elderly.

    Impact of ageing population exaggerated My Ageing Parent website. 2013
    Article on www.myageingparent.com titled "Impact of ageing population exaggerated" is dedicated to John MacInnes and Jeroen Spijker's BMJ article. Their article argues that the idea that dependent older people represent a great demographic challenge of our age is exaggerated as current measurements wrongly assume that all people that have reached state pension age are dependent. In addition, female and older workers' labour force participation can still be increased, which would lessen the financial burden of those who sustain the elderly.

    An age-old assumption Pick News website. 2013
    Article on pick-news.com titled "An age-old assumption" is dedicated to John MacInnes and Jeroen Spijker's BMJ article. Their article argues that the idea that dependent older people represent a great demographic challenge of our age is exaggerated as current measurements wrongly assume that all people that have reached state pension age are dependent. In addition, female and older workers' labour force participation can still be increased, which would lessen the financial burden of those who sustain the elderly.

    Exaggeration in Britain's old age 'time bomb' Top News US website. 2013
    Article on topnews.us titled "Exaggeration in Britain's old age 'time bomb'" is dedicated to John MacInnes and Jeroen Spijker's BMJ article. Their article argues that the idea that dependent older people represent a great demographic challenge of our age is exaggerated as current measurements wrongly assume that all people that have reached state pension age are dependent. In addition, female and older workers' labour force participation can still be increased, which would lessen the financial burden of those who sustain the elderly.

    Population trends and implications of ageing in Scotland BBC Radio Scotland. 2013
    John MacInnes is part of a conversation on the John Beattie Programme, Radio Scotland, about population trends and implications of ageing in Scotland.

    Britain's old age 'time bomb' may have been exaggerated; say experts
    Article on goteleemedneg.wordpress.com titled "Britain's old age 'time bomb' may have been exaggerated, say experts" is dedicated to John MacInnes and Jeroen Spijker's BMJ article. Their article argues that the idea that dependent older people represent a great demographic challenge of our age is exaggerated as current measurements wrongly assume that all people that have reached state pension age are dependent. In addition, female and older workers' labour force participation can still be increased, which would lessen the financial burden of those who sustain the elderly.

    Impact of ageing population 'exaggerated' @age_uk Ageing News website. 2013
    Article on ageingnews.blogspot.co.uk titled "Impact of ageing population 'exaggerated' @age_uk" is dedicated to John MacInnes and Jeroen Spijker's BMJ article. Their article argues that the idea that dependent older people represent a great demographic challenge of our age is exaggerated as current measurements wrongly assume that all people that have reached state pension age are dependent. In addition, female and older workers' labour force participation can still be increased, which would lessen the financial burden of those who sustain the elderly.

    Impact of ageing population 'exaggerated' Walsall Safeguarding Adults Board website. 2013
    Article on www.wsapb.co.uk titled "Impact of ageing population 'exaggerated" is dedicated to John MacInnes and Jeroen Spijker's BMJ article. Their article argues that the idea that dependent older people represent a great demographic challenge of our age is exaggerated as current measurements wrongly assume that all people that have reached state pension age are dependent. In addition, female and older workers' labour force participation can still be increased, which would lessen the financial burden of those who sustain the elderly.

    Population Aging Crisis May Have Been Overestimated Pri-med website. 2013
    Article on www.pri-med.com titled "Population Aging Crisis May Have Been Overestimated" is dedicated to John MacInnes and Jeroen Spijker's BMJ article. Their article argues that the idea that dependent older people represent a great demographic challenge of our age is exaggerated as current measurements wrongly assume that all people that have reached state pension age are dependent. In addition, female and older workers' labour force participation can still be increased, which would lessen the financial burden of those who sustain the elderly.

    Impact of ageing population 'exaggerated' Age UK website. 2013
    Article on www.ageuk.org.uk titled "Impact of ageing population 'exaggerated'" is dedicated to John MacInnes and Jeroen Spijker's BMJ article. Their article argues that the idea that dependent older people represent a great demographic challenge of our age is exaggerated as current measurements wrongly assume that all people that have reached state pension age are dependent. In addition, female and older workers' labour force participation can still be increased, which would lessen the financial burden of those who sustain the elderly.

    Population ageing impact is exaggerated On Medica website. 2013
    Article on www.onmedica.com titled "Population ageing impact is exaggerated" is dedicated to John MacInnes and Jeroen Spijker's BMJ article. Their article argues that the idea that dependent older people represent a great demographic challenge of our age is exaggerated as current measurements wrongly assume that all people that have reached state pension age are dependent. In addition, female and older workers' labour force participation can still be increased, which would lessen the financial burden of those who sustain the elderly.

    Impact of aging population 'exaggerated;' say researchers Medical News Today website. 2013
    Article on www.medicalnewstoday.com titled "Impact of aging population 'exaggerated,' say researchers" is dedicated to John MacInnes and Jeroen Spijker's BMJ article. Their article argues that the idea that dependent older people represent a great demographic challenge of our age is exaggerated as current measurements wrongly assume that all people that have reached state pension age are dependent. In addition, female and older workers' labour force participation can still be increased, which would lessen the financial burden of those who sustain the elderly.

    Aging Population Isn't the Timebomb Many Make It Out to Be WSJ blogs. 2013
    Article on blogs.wsj.com titled "Aging Population Isn't the Timebomb Many Make It Out to Be" is dedicated to John MacInnes and Jeroen Spijker's BMJ article. Their article argues that the idea that dependent older people represent a great demographic challenge of our age is exaggerated as current measurements wrongly assume that all people that have reached state pension age are dependent. In addition, female and older workers' labour force participation can still be increased, which would lessen the financial burden of those who sustain the elderly.

    Impact of population ageing has been exaggerated; say experts Economic Voice website. 2013
    Article on www.economicvoice.com titled "Impact of population ageing has been exaggerated, say experts" is dedicated to John MacInnes and Jeroen Spijker's BMJ article. Their article argues that the idea that dependent older people represent a great demographic challenge of our age is exaggerated as current measurements wrongly assume that all people that have reached state pension age are dependent. In addition, female and older workers' labour force participation can still be increased, which would lessen the financial burden of those who sustain the elderly.

    Experts defuse demographic timebomb of ageing UK The Scotsman. 2013
    Article in the Scotsman newspaper and also on on www.scotsman.com titled "Experts defuse demographic timebomb of ageing UK" is dedicated to John MacInnes and Jeroen Spijker's BMJ article. Their article argues that the idea that dependent older people represent a great demographic challenge of our age is exaggerated as current measurements wrongly assume that all people that have reached state pension age are dependent. In addition, female and older workers' labour force participation can still be increased, which would lessen the financial burden of those who sustain the elderly.

    Britain's old age 'time bomb' may have been exaggerated; say experts The Independent. 2013
    Article in the Independent newspaper and also on on www.independent.co.uk titled "Britain's old age 'time bomb' may have been exaggerated, say experts" is dedicated to John MacInnes and Jeroen Spijker's BMJ article. Their article argues that the idea that dependent older people represent a great demographic challenge of our age is exaggerated as current measurements wrongly assume that all people that have reached state pension age are dependent. In addition, female and older workers' labour force participation can still be increased, which would lessen the financial burden of those who sustain the elderly.

    UK ageing population fears overstated Al Jazeera. 2013
    John MacInnes is intervied by Kim Vinnell on Al-Jazeera about "UK ageing population fears overstated". A short comment on their published BMJ article that challenges fears over the rate of ageing of Britain's population and that the ageing problem is overstated by government

    An age-old assumption BBC News website. 2013
    Article on www.bbc.co.uk/news titled "An age-old assumption" is dedicated to John MacInnes and Jeroen Spijker's BMJ article. Their article argues that the idea that dependent older people represent a great demographic challenge of our age is exaggerated as current measurements wrongly assume that all people that have reached state pension age are dependent. In addition, female and older workers' labour force participation can still be increased, which would lessen the financial burden of those who sustain the elderly.

    Ageing population has been 'grossly over exaggerated' The Information Daily website. 2013
    Article on www.theinformationdaily.com titled "Ageing population has been 'grossly over exaggerated', say experts" is dedicated to John MacInnes and Jeroen Spijker's BMJ article. Their article argues that the idea that dependent older people represent a great demographic challenge of our age is exaggerated as current measurements wrongly assume that all people that have reached state pension age are dependent. In addition, female and older workers' labour force participation can still be increased, which would lessen the financial burden of those who sustain the elderly.

    Don't worry about ageing Scotland as 60 really is the new 40 The Herald Scotland. 2013
    Article in the Herald Scotland newspaper and also on www.heraldscotland.com titled "Don't worry about ageing Scotland as 60 really is the new 40" quotes John MacInnes and Jeroen Spijker. They challenge the idea that the ageing population of Scotland is a burden on society, saying it fails to take into account the improving health of the older generation.

    Caring for the elderly
    Article in "Britain in 2014" ESRC magazine titled "Caring for the elderly" written by Sarah Womack, quotes John MacInnes and Jeroen Spijker